NP-complete problems, assuming P ≠ NP, have solutions that are hard to compute but simple to verify. But relaxing the definition of hard to compute, simple to verify let's us make some interesting analogies across different emerging technologies. There's public-key cryptography, which relies on things hard to compute, easy to verify problems like factorization of large integers, or

## Hard to Compute, Simple to Verify

## Hard to Compute, Simple to Verify

## Hard to Compute, Simple to Verify

NP-complete problems, assuming P ≠ NP, have solutions that are hard to compute but simple to verify. But relaxing the definition of hard to compute, simple to verify let's us make some interesting analogies across different emerging technologies. There's public-key cryptography, which relies on things hard to compute, easy to verify problems like factorization of large integers, or